Murray, James W. Department of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.
Last reviewed:October 2019
- Chemical distributions
- Geological history
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
A semienclosed marginal sea with an area of 420,000 km2 (160,000 mi2) bounded by Turkey to the south, Georgia to the east, Russia and Ukraine to the north, and Romania and Bulgaria to the west (Fig. 1). The physical and chemical structure of the Black Sea is critically dependent on its hydrological balance. As a result, it is the world's largest anoxic basin. It has recently experienced numerous types of environmental stress.
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